Buying a new TV can be a difficult experience if you don't know what to look for. All the specs and acronyms can get overwhelming and you might be worried that sales people don't have your best interest at heart.
It can be daunting, but don't worry, you'll quickly get the hang of it.
With lessons learned across hundreds of reviews, guides and technical explainers, we’ve got the knowledge to guide through the TV shopping wilderness.
Whether you're looking for simple shopping advice or need to know which features matter most, we’ve pulled together all of our advice into one place to answer the most common questions about buying a smart TV.
If you’re ready to learn your HDR from your HDMI, or are just looking to get top tips on picking the best TV for you, keep reading for our full TV buying guide.
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TV buying guide quick tips
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If you’re in a hurry, here are the most important things to consider before you buy a television. We explain each of these points in greater detail in our TV buying guide below:
- Don’t buy a TV with less than 4K resolution. Avoid full HD or 1080p sets, unless you're looking for a second (or third) TV and don't mind buying something that's 32 inches or less. And even then, think if you can stretch your budget to 4K.
- You can skip 8K TVs (for now). 8K TVs are super expensive, and 8K movies and shows aren't available yet. Yes, the processor inside is going to make content look sharp, but you're overpaying for a feature you don't really need.
- Expect to pay about $500 for a good budget 55-inch 4K TV. You can get by spending a little less, especially if you drop down in size, but models around $500 offer a better picture, upgraded speakers and next-gen features.
- Look for 120 Hz refresh rate: When it comes to refresh rates, 60 Hz is good, but 120 Hz is better. A higher refresh rate provides smoother motion for everything from movies and shows, to live sports and gaming.
- Look for an HDR-compatible set: This offers more realistic colors and better contrast. Preferably consider a TV that supports the more advanced formats, namely HDR10+ or Dolby Vision. Some will support both.
- OLED TVs look much better than most LCD sets: But QLED TVs from Samsung, Vizio and TCL are an affordable middle ground.
- Look for at least four HDMI ports. And opt for the newer HDMI 2.1 format if you can.
- Plan to buy a soundbar. TV speakers are worse nowadays because the screens are thinner.
- Avoid extended warranties. Your credit card company may already provide purchase protection.
Screen size: Finding the sweet spot
Whether you're looking for a basic or high-performance TV, the biggest factor in your decision will probably be screen size. Consider how many people in your family typically watch at once and where you're going to put your new set. Then pick the largest screen size that will fit comfortably into that space — and your budget. The sweet spot today, considering price, performance and the typical living room, is between 55 and 65 inches.
Screen size also depends on how close you sit to the TV. Basically, if you can see the individual pixels of the screen, you're too close. A good rule of thumb is that you should sit at a distance from the TV that is three times more than the height of the screen for HD and just 1.5 times the screen height for 4K Ultra HD. In other words, you can sit twice as close to a 4K UHD TV.
Our what TV should you buy article has an in-depth guide to calculating the proper TV screen size based on the dimensions of your room, as well as the resolution of the TV. And check out the best TVs by size:
No TV buying guide, no matter how detailed, can replace your own experience and judgment. If you have the opportunity, go to a store (and maybe bring your family) and look at the TVs. Even though 4K content is less common than 1080p, its availability is improving through the likes of Netflix. you may want that higher-resolution technology if you plan to sit close to a very large screen.
But you should also consider where the TV will be going in your home. While the above advice is intended for living rooms and home theaters, you'll want to consider what size is appropriate for other parts of the house, like the bedroom or the kitchen, where a smaller TV may be a necessity.
Bottom Line: Choose a screen size and resolution appropriate for the distance you will sit from the screen. We’d start at 55 inches, unless you're in a small apartment or dorm.
Screen resolution: 8K, 4K or HD?
Resolution describes the number of pixels that make up the picture on a display, in terms of horizontal rows and vertical columns. More pixels translate into sharper picture and finer details, so higher resolution is (almost always) better.
No TV buying guide would be complete without a discussion of resolution. For many years, the 1920 x 1080 resolution, also called full HD, has been the standard. However, TV manufacturers are rapidly shifting to Ultra HD sets (also called 4K). These 4K models have four times the number of pixels as current HDTV screens. We’re talking 2,160 horizontal lines, or 3840 x 2160 pixels.
The biggest benefit of 4K TVs is that small objects on the screen have more detail, including sharper text. Overall, images appear richer and more life-like than on an HDTV, but the benefits can be subtle. The sharper picture also has the added benefit of letting you comfortably view the screen from a shorter distance, making larger TVs more comfortable to view in a regular-sized home.
Ultra HD video looks great, and there is more and more content to enjoy. Several streaming services, like Netflix, Amazon Video and even YouTube have started offering 4K content, making smart TVs and streaming sticks your best bet for easily finding 4K movies and shows. Ultra HD Blu-ray discs are becoming more common too, and most big releases will release in 4K these days.
Live TV hasn't fully embraced 4K yet, but DirectTV, Dish Network and Comcast Xfinity have all started offering 4K movies. Although Ultra HD sets can upscale existing HD content, the results can be mixed and do not look as sharp as original 4K programming.
You might start getting 4K TV over the air. The new ATSC 3.0 broadcast standard (also called NextGen TV) began rolling out to several cities across the United States in 2020, bringing the potential for better signal, better picture, and smarter features with internet connectivity. This new standard has continued expanding, and so have the TVs with ATSC 3.0 tuners.
They include the LG G1 OLED TV and Samsung QN90A Neo QLED TV, as well as a number of TVs in the main manufacturers' 2022 lineups. Check out the best TVs with ATSC 3.0 tuners for our recommendations, and find out if your city is a part of the initial target markets on the ATSC website.
There are finally a number of somewhat affordable 8K TVs on the market now. These displays quadruple the resolution seen on 4K sets, offering a giant leap forward in picture quality. However, finding content to fully take advantage of that higher resolution is extremely limited.
Check out our guide Should you buy an 8K TV? to learn why we still recommend shoppers go for 4K.
Bottom Line: Ultra HD resolution, also called 4K, has become the standard, and it's a better choice if you want to future-proof your investment. You can already buy higher resolution 8K TVs, but we suggest holding off.
8K resolution: Hold off
If you thought the jump to 4K resolution was amazing, you'll be floored by 8K, which ratchets up the detail even further with 7680 x 4320 pixels. It's amazing to see, and it's the next big thing in consumer TVs. But any worthwhile TV buying guide should be telling that it's not worth spending your money on just yet.
All that eye-popping detail is incredible, but it is still missing an essential element: Content. There are no 8K movies available for purchase, and streaming in 4K is already more taxing than many people's internet connection can handle.
So far, companies are hoping that fancy AI-powered upscaling will make everything look good enough to justify prices that far outstrip the cost of premium 4K sets. The 8K models on the market are expensive, but it's getting better. While early models boasted enormous screens and equally outsized prices (the LG Z9 8K OLED has an 88-inch screen and sells for $29,999), smaller, more affordable 8K sets have emerged, like the 65-inch TCL Roku TV 6-Series 8K (R648), which sells for just $2,199 – less than some of the top 4K smart TVs.
That doesn't mean it's better than those 4K flagships, of course, so it's always worth reading our reviews to aid your buying decision.
Bottom Line: You can leave the pricey 8K TVs to the early adopters. Until content is available, you'll just wind up paying a lot of money for upscaled 4K video.
MORE: The best 8K TVs you can buy
HDR: Get it if you want the most colors
HDR is a relatively new feature of 4K Ultra HD sets and it stands for high dynamic range, a reference to its ability to deliver more colors, more contrast levels and increased brightness. HDR is essentially an upgrade of the 4K, or Ultra HD, format (it is not applicable to 1080p HD sets). For this new feature, TV makers are christening new monikers for the sets to distinguish them from standard 4K Ultra HD TVs.
For a more complete discussion of HDR standards, and which you should look for when buying a TV, check out our article 'Don't buy a TV until you read this guide to all those HDR standards'.
The basic standard for high-dynamic range content is called HDR10, as set forth by the UHD Alliance, an industry trade group. Dozens of companies are supporting this basic minimum specification for HDR compatibility, so you will see "HDR10" or "Ultra HD Premium" on compatible TVs. Every HDR TV will support HDR10 at the very least.
Dolby Vision is a more demanding version of HDR, created and licensed by the folks that brought us Dolby noise reduction and surround sound. It includes dynamic metadata that adjusts the HDR effect on a frame-by-frame basis, so the results are much more accurate and impressive. So far, Dolby Vision has led the industry in terms of proprietary HDR formats, and can be found on premium models from most brands (including LG, Sony, TCL and Vizio).
Samsung has introduced its own premium HDR format, called HDR10+, for all of its smart TVs. It works in a similar way to Dolby Vision, so offers a great viewing experience, but it's far less common than Dolby Vision.
In terms of content, Dolby Vision has much more content out there that you can take advantage of if your TV supports it. Netflix offers a wide range of Dolby Vision content, while Amazon Prime Video's offering of HDR10+ content is smaller, but growing slowly.
Similarly, Dolby Vision is more widely supported on UHD Blu-rays at the moment but there are more HDR10+ UHD Blu-rays becoming available.
Ultimately, have a think where you are most likely to watch content and ensure your TV of choice supports that format - and your Blu-ray player too. Some support both formats to really future-proof you, but do check first.
Finally, cable and satellite have their own form of HDR, called Hybrid-Log Gamma (HLG), so you should start seeing HDR pop up now and then for movies and even live TV.
Bottom Line: If you're buying a 4K TV, you'll want to get a TV with HDR support to make the most of its picture. If you want the best, buy an HDR set that is compatible with Dolby Vision. That is the format that offers the most content right now.
Refresh rate: Faster is better
The refresh rate, expressed in Hertz (Hz) describes how many times per second a picture is refreshed on the screen. The standard refresh rate is 60 times per second, or 60 Hz. However, in scenes with rapidly moving objects, a 60 Hz refresh rate can make things look blurry or jittery, particularly on LCD HDTVs. So, to create a more solid picture, manufacturers doubled the refresh rate to 120 Hz (and in some cases up to 240 Hz).
Some new models are boasting High-Frame Rate (HFR) support, which means that they have both a higher refresh rate and added support for content with higher than 60 Hz frame rates. With HFR content set to come from both movies and live broadcasts, and HFR will be especially good for live sports, so it's definitely a feature to watch out for.
Gamers will be especially keen to get higher refresh rates, and those with PS5, Xbox Series X or Xbox Series S who have games with 120 Hz support should look for a TV that can make the most of that. For older gaming consoles, 60 Hz is the sweet spot. Take a look at our best 4K gaming TVs for the pick of our favourites.
A word of caution: beware of terms like "effective refresh rate," which means the actual frame rate is half the stated rate (e.g., a "120 Hz effective refresh rate" is actually a 60 Hz refresh rate). Everything else is done with video processing, not a refresh of the screen. Check our article 'This is the biggest lie told to TV shoppers — and how to see through it' for a closer look at misleading frame rate specs.
Bottom line: Most TV shoppers shouldn't buy a TV with less than a 120 Hz refresh rate for the smoothest picture.
HDMI and connections: Go for more
It may seem like an afterthought, but pay attention to the number of HDMI inputs a set has. Manufacturers looking to shave costs may offer fewer HDMI plugs on the back. These ports can get used up quickly: Add a sound bar, a Roku or Chromecast and a game console, and you've used three ports already.
If you have decided to take the plunge and get a 4K Ultra HD, make sure the set's ports support HDMI 2.0 at the very least to accommodate future Ultra HD sources.
The newer HDMI 2.1 format has started cropping up on TVs, and while the biggest benefits of the new standard will be seen in delivering 8K content, there are still plenty of goodies coming to 4K sets.
The biggest improvement is variable refresh rate (VRR) support, which introduces the same sort of frame rate matching seen in Nvidia's G-Sync and AMD's FreeSync technologies. By matching the TV refresh rate to the frame rates of you content source – in this case the graphics card inside your game console or PC – you'll get smoother action and zero screen tearing.
It also adds higher frame rates for 4K video and richer HDR data that will allow adjustments at the scene level for more-precise backlighting control, as well as eARC support to boot. This will allow the very best form of Dolby Atmos sound formats to pass through to compatible soundbars and AV receivers.
As of now, we've seen HDMI 2.1 capability popping up more and more models, like the one in our LG CX OLED review, which uses the faster standard for all four of its HDMI ports. And HDMI 2.1 is appearing on more TVs this year, with models from LG, Samsung, Sony.
Keep an eye on this TV buying guide to understand how HDMI 2.1 can benefit you and whether it's worth holding out for in the coming year.
Still confused about the different ports on your TV? Check out TV ports explained: What all those HDMI, USB and other connections are for to get a closer look at each.
TV types and jargon explained: LCD, LED LCD, OLED
Aside from projection sets, there are basically only two types of TVs on the market: LCD and OLED. Unless you have a lot of disposable income, you'll probably be buying an LCD TV.
LED and LCD Sets
The lion's share of televisions today are LED LCD. These HD and Ultra HD sets use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to illuminate the LCD screen and can be extremely thin. Many of these TVs can dynamically light up specific portions of the screen and dim other parts to better represent a mix of light and dark areas in a scene — a feature known as active dimming or local dimming. No-frills LED LCD sets can be had for as little as $200 for a 32-inch screen, while a top-of-the-line 90-inch model can go for $8,000.
One hidden feature separating the budget TVs from the premium models is backlighting. With several different types of LED backlighting used in modern TVs, it pays to know the difference between the different options. Check out TV backlights explained: Edge-lit vs. full array vs. Mini-LED for an in-depth look at modern TV backlighting (and opt for Mini-LED if you can).
Another LCD technology called quantum dots has been made famous by Samsung, which use it in its QLED sets. It's actually long-standing tech that is also used by other companies like TCL, and helps and LCD screen produce a wider array of colors and more brightness. It basically adds another layer, or added “rail,” of different size nanocrystal dots that light up when the LED backlight hits them. The result is a wider color spectrum and increased brightness, in an attempt to act against OLED.
For an affordable middle ground between basic LCD and pricey OLED displays, quantum-dot enhancement is a smart way to go, just don't let the similar looks of the words QLED and OLED fool you – quantum dot displays are still LCD TVs.
Pros: Wide array of prices, sizes and features; Some affordable Ultra HD 4K models; Bright screens visible even in a sunny room; Image quality steadily improving with full-array backlighting and quantum-dot technology.
Cons: Exhibits imperfections when displaying rapid motion, as in sports; Loses some shadow detail because pixels can't go completely black (even with full-array backlighting); Images fade when viewing from the side (off-axis).
OLED TVs go one better than full-array LED-LCDs with a few dozen lighting zones. In place of a backlight, OLEDs use a layer of organic LEDs, controlled at the pixel level, to achieve absolute black and stunning levels of contrast. (Footage of fireworks against a black sky is a favorite demonstration of OLED technology.)
LG isn't the only company actively pursuing OLED technology in large screen sizes, however. Sony has been offering OLED models for several years, and both Vizio and Philips are also on board with the tech. See our picks of the best OLED TVs you can buy for our recommendations.
The best-in-class display technology is seen exclusively on 4K and 8K sets, and range in size from 55 inches up to 75 inches or larger. But OLED has also gotten much more affordable, with 55-inch models selling for less than $2,000, and 65-inch models selling in the $2,000-3,000 range.
We might even see the first sub-$1,000 OLED displays later this year as new companies compete and smaller OLED panels come to market.
Pros: Best TV picture, bar none; Colors truly pop, deeper blacks and better contrast and shadow detail than LCD TVs achieve; Retains image quality when viewed from the side.
Cons: Premium prices; lower peak brightness than some LCD sets, uncertainty about how screens will fare over time, including whether they will retain "ghost" images (also known as burn-in) from displaying a static picture for too long.
MORE: QLED vs OLED TV
But the TV industry is always readying new technologies, and new jargon to go with it. While technologies like micro-LED and mini-LED are still new and relatively rare, you can buy TVs with the new tech now, so keep an eye on our coverage to find out about new features as they arrive.
Smart TVs: Most already are
The majority of TVs you buy now will come with built-in Wi-Fi for connecting Internet-based services like Netflix, downloading on-demand movies, playing games or even posting to Facebook. The latest models can even search for content across streaming services and live programming on cable and satellite.
The interfaces are generally getting better. Vizio, LG and now Samsung use a handy bar of icons at the bottom of the screen. Roku offers its famously intuitive interface in budget TVs from Hisense, TCL and other inexpensive brands. Google provides its Android TV platform to companies such as Sony and Westinghouse, and Amazon has jumped into the mix with Amazon Fire Edition TVs from Toshiba and Insignia (Best Buy’s brand).
While most smart TVs include the major services, such as Pandora, Hulu and Netflix, check to make sure the TV you buy has the options you want. Our guides to common questions about smart TVs and comparison of smart TV platforms are good places to start.
Streaming apps available on smart TVs are also one of the best ways to find and enjoy 4K and HDR content. With movies and shows offered by services from Amazon, Hulu, Netflix and YouTube, it's quick and easy to find both 4K resolution and HDR-enabled content – easier than finding Blu-rays with the desired formats. The only concern is whether your internet connection can provide enough bandwidth.
But not all smart TVs are created equal. Many budget-friendly brands will offer smart TV functionality without naming the actual platform that they use. In these cases, expect to run into limitations. Off-brand smart platforms frequently suffer from severely limited app selection, sub-par performance and gaping security holes.
In the past, you could have bought a less expensive "dumb" TV and made it smart with a streaming device like the $50 Roku Streaming Stick. But nowadays, it's hard to get a TV that isn't smart, even if you're going for a small bargain model. However, those sticks can still be good for expanding your app selection on your chosen TV.
Bottom line: Smart capability is now a standard feature in TVs, so it's less and less of a factor in your buying decision.
Don't forget gaming: Features matter
A good gaming TV won't just have a great picture and sound. You also need to consider the connectivity options, gaming features and overall responsiveness of the TV.
While we already recommend holding out for more HDMI ports, an extra HDMI port can mean the difference between leaving your console connected and swapping it out for your Blu-ray player every time you want to fire up a round of Call of Duty.
While HDMI 2.1 is still relatively new, it's a must have for any of the next-gen consoles. And certain features offered by the 2.1 spec have become much more common, like Auto-Low Latency Mode (ALLM), which switches to game mode as soon as the console is turned on, and Variable Refresh Rate (VRR), which matches the screen to the frame-by-frame output coming from the TV, synchronizing the two for judder-free gaming.
To get a closer look at our favorite console-ready TVs, check out the best gaming TVs for 2023.
Contrast ratio: Unreliable numbers
The contrast ratio describes the range of brightness levels a set can display. Better contrast ratios display more subtle shadows and hues, and thus better detail. However, the way manufacturers measure such ratios varies widely. Indeed, the specification has been so thoroughly discredited that if a salesperson uses it as a selling point, you should shop somewhere else.
We use the same method for examining contrast ratios in all the TVs we test, so we can say roughly how well they compare to each other. Nevertheless, it's still best to see for yourself how a TV displays shadow detail by finding a movie with dark scenes and seeing how well it reveals detail in the shadows of, say, a Harry Potter movie. Experiment with the TV's brightness, sharpness and other picture settings before making a final judgment. (Hint: select “movie” or “cinema” mode on the TV for best results.)
The best TVs will have deep, dark black levels while less expensive displays glow with a dark gray, even when they should be showing black. These grays are called "elevated black levels" and are a common problem on less premium LCD TVs.
Bottom line: You can ignore manufacturers' contrast-ratio specs, since they are not comparable across brands. Instead, look for deep black levels and minimal haloing around high contrast objects.
Audio: Get a soundbar
Even the finest, most expensive HDTVs have an Achilles' heel: poor sound. It's a consequence of the svelte design of flat panels — there's not enough room for large speakers that produce full, rich sound. So, you have three choices: Use headphones (which can make you seem antisocial), buy a surround-sound system (which can be a hassle to set up), or get a soundbar.
Soundbars are popular because, for $300 or less, they can significantly improve the cinematic experience and yet be installed in minutes. The best soundbars are thin enough to fit under a TV stand without blocking the bottom of the picture. Most can also mount under a wall-hanging TV. Several companies also offer sound boxes or stands that can slide under a set.
Some TVs and soundbars also support Dolby Atmos, a newer audio standard from Dolby that includes overhead sound for a fuller listening experience. While you can get the Atmos effect using in-ceiling speakers, many soundbars have Atmos audio processing and upward firing speakers built-in to create more realistic sounding audio that doesn't require the multiple speaker placement that you'd have with 5.1 or 7.1 Surround Sound.
And don’t stress about additional cable clutter. Nearly all current TVs feature at least one HDMI port with Audio Return Channel (ARC) capability. This standard HDMI feature provides lets you use HDMI as both an input and an audio output, letting you not only send audio to the TV from your external media devices, but also out to your soundbar. That ARC connection means that you get great sound for all your devices, with no special receiver needed - just remember to look our for eARC support (found within HDMI 2.1) if you have an Atmos soundbar, for the very best results.
Bottom Line: Movies and sports benefit from the addition of a soundbar.
Extended warranties: Save your money
One of the biggest revenue generators for big-box electronics stores is the extended warranty. Why? Because they are so rarely needed, especially for a flat-panel LCD set. Most of the components in an HDTV are remarkably resilient; even the LEDs used to light the picture are virtually shockproof.
So, if you do get a lemon, it's likely to be apparent immediately or at least within the first 30 days of ownership — a time period usually covered by a regular store-return policy. Beyond that, most manufacturers offer a one-year warranty. Credit card companies may offer additional automatic coverage on purchases, so check with your provider.
Bottom Line: Save your money and contact your credit card company to see if it has a price protection policy.
Pay the right price: Bargains are out there
While you’ll always get the latest features and best capabilities by paying full price, a lot of shoppers are holding off because they think current TVs are too expensive. The reality is that TVs have not only never been better, they’ve also never been this affordable. While premium models can easily run upwards of $2,000, there are plenty of great TVs – complete with all of the 4K resolution, HDR support and smart features we recommend – for much less.
Even better, there’s almost always a great sale coming up, and if you’re willing to make some small concessions, you can save thousands of dollars when you buy your next TV. We not only share how to find the best bargain, we find the best cheap TV deals to help you save.
Bottom Line: You can get a top-rated TV for less if you’re willing to look for a bargain.
If you've narrowed down your TV shopping by brand, price range or screen size, check out our picks for the best TVs in each.
And don't forget to watch out for the latest TV reviews.