DSLR vs. mirrorless cameras: It's one of the biggest questions facing photographers looking to upgrade or purchase new equipment. DSLRs and mirrorless cameras share one important feature that separates them from all other types of cameras: You can swap out the lens. So, if you need to capture more of a scene, you can use a wide-angle lens, or if you need to get closer to the action, you can buy a telephoto lens. That's one of the reasons they're an investment, because you're buying into not only a camera but also an ecosystem of lenses.
Both types of camera systems are roughly on a par with each other. For the past few years, mirrorless cameras have been driving the lion's share of innovation, but DSLRs have also been adopting many of these features. However, there are still a number of differences between mirrorless and DSLR cameras. So, which type of camera is best for you? Read this guide to find out.
How to use your DSLR or mirrorless camera as a webcam
If, like many, you've been forced to work from home, and need to set up a home office, DSLRs and mirrorless cameras can be put to good use. While many of the best webcams have been sold out due to high demand, you can use your camera as a webcam, in many cases, by plugging it into your PC via USB, and then using software such as SparkoCam to allow video chat apps, such as Zoom, to access your camera.
Canon lets you use select Canon DSLRs, mirrorless cameras, and PowerShot cameras as a webcam, too, via the company's Canon EOS Webcam Utility Beta. Compatible cameras include the EOS Rebel SL2, SL3, T6, T7, EOS 80D, EOS 90D, the PowerShot GX5 II, GX7 III, and SX70HS. It works with both Macs and Windows PCs.
Fujifilm released the Fujifilm X Webcam app, which is a Windows-only program, but works with the Fujifilm GFX100, GFX 50S, GFX 50R, X-H1, X-Pro2, X-Pro3, X-T2, X-T3, and X-T4 cameras, as well as the X-T200 and the X-A7. Fujifilm also said that its software will work with Macs starting in mid-July.
The Panasonic Lumix Tether beta app lets you view a livestream from the camera, which you can pass through to a videoconferencing app of your choice. It's compatible with the DC-GH5, DC-G9, DC-GH5S, DC-S1, DC-S1R, and DC-S1H cameras.
Owners of the Olympus E-M1X, E-M1, E-M1 Mark II, E-M1 Mark III and the E-M5 Mark II can use the Olympus OM-D Webcam beta software in conjunction with a PC to use those cameras as a webcam. Sorry, no Mac support at this time.
Make sure you check out all of our top picks for DSLRs, mirrorless cameras and more on our best cameras page.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: DSLR and mirrorless defined
For the most part, DSLRs use the same design as the 35mm film cameras of days gone by, with an image sensor occupying the place where film would have resided. A mirror inside the camera body reflects light coming in through the lens up to a prism (or additional mirrors) and into the viewfinder so you can preview your shot. When you press the shutter button, the mirror flips up, the shutter opens and the light hits the image sensor, which captures the final image. Our top DSLR pick for beginners is the budget-friendly Nikon D3500, which costs $400 with a 3x zoom kit lens.
In a mirrorless camera, light passes through the lens and right onto the image sensor, which captures a preview of the image to display on the rear screen — just as a smartphone camera does. Some models also offer a second screen via an electronic viewfinder (EVF) that you can hold up to your eye for a better view when you're in bright sunlight. Our example of a mirrorless camera, one of our favorites, is the Sony a6100 ($700 with kit lens).
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Size & weight
DSLR camera bodies are comparatively larger, as they need to fit in a mirror and optical viewfinder mechanism. The body of the Nikon D3500, for example, is smaller than its predecessor, but still a rather bulky 3 inches deep before you put the lens on the front. With the 18-55mm kit lens, the camera weighs about 1.5 pounds.
A mirrorless camera body can be smaller than a DSLR, with simpler construction. The Sony a6100 has a body just 1.6 inches thick and weighs 1.3 pounds with its 16-50mm kit lens. That's compact enough to fit in a coat pocket or a small purse.
Winner: Mirrorless camera
You can carry a mirrorless camera more easily and fit more gear, such as extra lenses, into a camera bag.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Autofocus speed
DSLRs used to have the advantage here, because they use a technology called phase detection, which quickly measures the convergence of two beams of light. Mirrorless cameras were restricted to a technology called contrast detection, which uses the image sensor to detect the highest contrast, which coincides with focus. Contrast detection is slower — especially in low light — than phase detection.
Those distinctions are essentially over now. Nearly all mirrorless cameras (as well as the best camera phones) now have both phase- and contrast-detection sensors built into the image sensor. The Sony a6100, for instance, has 425 phase-detection autofocus points on its image sensor, along with 425 contrast-detection points. The Nikon D3500 has 11 large phase-detection sensors in its separate AF sensor and uses the entire image sensor for contrast detection. Newer Canon DSLRs (and the high-end Nikon D780) place phase-detection sensors right on the main image chip, along with the contrast-detection sensors, allowing them to function like a mirrorless camera with a live on-screen preview and fast autofocus.
DSLRs can mimic a mirrorless camera by raising the mirror and showing a live preview of the image (usually called Live View mode). Most low-cost DSLRs (such as the Nikon D3500) are slow to focus in this mode, though, as they don’t have the hybrid on-chip phase-detection sensors and have to use slower contrast detection to focus.
Both types offer speedy autofocus using ever more similar technologies. If you are shooting video with a DSLR, be sure to find a model that has on-chip phase-detection sensors.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Previewing images
With a DSLR, the through-the-lens optical viewfinder shows you exactly what the camera will capture. With a mirrorless camera, you get a digital preview of the image on-screen. Some mirrorless cameras offer an electronic viewfinder (EVF) — a small, high-resolution screen in an eyepiece that simulates the optical viewfinder of a DSLR.
When you're in good light, the preview on the screen or EVF of a mirrorless camera will look close to the final image. But in situations where the camera is struggling (such as in low light or with fast-moving subjects), the preview will suffer, becoming dull, grainy and jerky. That’s because the mirrorless camera has to slow down the speed at which it captures images to grab more light, but still has to show you a moving preview. A DSLR, by contrast, reflects the light directly to your eye.
However, one benefit to EVFs on mirrorless cameras is that they can give you a preview of what the final image will look like before you actually take the picture. If you change the shutter speed or the aperture, for instance, what you see on the EVF will change accordingly. Meanwhile, since a DSLR's optical viewfinder reflects light without altering the image, you are more reliant on the camera's metering and your experience when it comes to predicting what your final results will look like.
So, if you are shooting mostly in good light, both types will perform well. If you are often shooting in low light or other challenging conditions, though, a DSLR will be easier to shoot with.
For many situations, both types of cameras provide you with very capable image previews.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Image stabilization
Shaky hands make for blurry pictures, and the effects are magnified the longer your shutter speed, or the more you zoom in. Both DSLR and mirrorless cameras offer image-stabilization systems: Sensors measure camera movement, and the camera slightly shifts either part of the lens or the image sensor in a direction that's opposite to the shake.
DSLRs and most mirrorless cameras are limited to the lens-shift method, which allows them to counteract shake along two axes: vertical (straight up or down) and horizontal (side to side). Some mirrorless cameras move both the lens element and the sensor along two axes in a synchronized pattern for even greater stability.
We have found that the differences between these approaches are minimal. The main advantage of sensor stabilization is that it works with all lenses, even older or cheaper lenses that don't provide their own stabilization. Either way, most modern cameras can deal with a small amount of camera shake to produce a sharper picture, but can't compensate for larger movements.
However, there are a few exceptions. Higher-end mirrorless cameras such as the Olympus OM-D EM-5 Mark III, the Sony a6500 and Sony a6600 offer in-body five-axis image stabilization, which is a feature not yet found on DSLRs. They shift the sensor to compensate for movement not only on the vertical and horizontal axes but also along three other axes: pitch (tilting up and down), yaw (turning side to side) and roll (rotating).
In-body five-axis stabilization is superior to other methods and extremely helpful when shooting from a moving position, such as a car, helicopter or boat. It also produces much steadier footage for handheld video shoots.
Five-axis image stabilization gives mirrorless cameras the edge — in the more expensive models that have it. But in entry-level cameras, both mirrorless and DSLRs tend to use similar in-lens stabilization.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Image quality
Both types of camera can take high-quality pictures, with similar resolutions and amounts of graininess, known as noise. Mirrorless cameras traditionally had smaller image sensors, which used to mean lower quality (as they couldn't capture as much light), but that is no longer the case. Camera manufacturers have learned to produce more sensitive chips and to better suppress noise from small sensors. Furthermore, several mirrorless camera makers now use larger image sensors. Sony and Canon, for instance, make mirrorless cameras with the same APS-C size sensors found in the majority of DSLRs.
There are also a number of full-frame mirrorless cameras that have the same size sensor (35mm) that's found in premium DSLR cameras. Sony's A7 line pioneered this, but now Canon and Nikon also have full-frame mirrorless models.
With equivalent sensors and image processors, both camera types can take great photos.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Video quality
Autofocus is the key differentiator for video. Typically, mirrorless cameras have had the advantage, since they were more likely to have on-chip phase-detection focus sensors. Most DSLRs still can't use phase detection with the mirror up while recording video, so they have to use the slower, less accurate, contrast-detection focus method. This leads more often to the familiar blur-blur look in the middle of a video when the camera starts hunting for the right focus. However, Canon began changing the dynamic a few years ago by adding on-sensor phase detection, starting with the Canon 80D and the Canon EOS Rebel T7i. Nikon has just started introducing on-sensor phase detection at its higher end of cameras.
Both camera types have also been making the move to 4K, or Ultra HD, video with four times the resolution of HD footage. Sony, for instance, now has 4K in its base mirrorless model, the new a6100, and Canon has equipped its beginner-oriented Rebel T8i with 4K capture.
With superior autofocus in more models, mirrorless cameras provide the best results for most filmmakers.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Shooting speed
Both camera technologies can shoot at very fast shutter speeds and capture a burst of images quickly. With the exception of high-end DSLRs, mirrorless cameras have an edge, though: The lack of a mirror makes it easier to take image after image. Although they don’t have mirrors, most mirrorless cameras still use a mechanical shutter that lifts to expose the image, as it produces better results. They also have the option of using an electronic shutter (just setting how long the sensor reads the light), which means they can shoot more quickly and silently.
The simpler mechanics of mirrorless cameras allow them to shoot more photos per second.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Battery life
Generally, DSLRs offer longer battery life, as they can shoot without having to provide live view on an LCD screen or an electronic viewfinder, both of which consume a lot of power.
That said, mirrorless camera battery life is improving. For instance, the Sony a6000, which debuted in 2014, is rated for 360 shots per charge (when using the LCD preview). Its successor, the new a6100, is rated for 420 shots from the same battery.
But they still can't touch DSLRs. The entry-level Nikon D3500, for instance, is rated for a whopping 1,550 shots per charge. If you opt for a mirrorless camera, you might want to consider also buying a second battery.
DSLRs offer the ability to shoot without using the LCD screen or EVF, which can extend the battery life considerably.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Lenses & accessories
Choosing a DSLR gives you access to a plethora of lenses from a number of manufacturers, ranging from cheap and satisfactory to professional and wildly expensive. Mirrorless models are more restricted, offering access to a small number of lenses from the camera maker, though the selection is growing. As they have been around longer, DSLRs tend to have a better selection of other accessories, such as speedlights (flashes).
The difference is especially stark among traditional camera makers. Canon has hundreds of lenses available for its DSLR cameras (as does Nikon). However, right now, Canon has only eight M-series lenses available for its lineup of mirrorless cameras; Nikon has 13 lenses for its new Z series of mirrorless models. Third-party lens makers such as Sigma and Tamron have also been making lenses for Canon and Nikon SRLs and DLSRs for many years. Keep in mind, though, that some of these SLR lens models are quite old and may not be ideal for a modern DSLR. Some may not support autofocus, for instance.
The mirrorless lens selection is better for companies that focus on the technology. Sony, for instance, now has about 50 E-mount lenses for its mirrorless models. Panasonic and Olympus, which share the Micro Four Thirds sensor format, each make about 40 lenses that can be used on cameras from either maker. Third-party lens makers also produce a good selection for the Sony and the Olympus/Panasonic lens mounts.
In addition, you can generally purchase adapters to use DSLR-size lenses on a mirrorless camera that's made by the same manufacturer (such as for Canon or Sony). But that often comes at a price of altering the focal length and zoom characteristics and sometimes disabling or slowing functions such as autofocus.
DSLRs still offer access to a wider range of lenses, but the gap between the two types is narrowing quickly as more mirrorless lenses become available.
DSLR vs. mirrorless: Durability
If you regularly venture off the beaten path, it's worth looking at a model that adds an extra level of protection. Entry-level cameras of either type, such as the Nikon D3500, often come with plastic bodies that are strong enough for casual use but may not hold up well if they get tossed around, say, for extended backcountry trips.
The next step up in durability is an alloy body that can better withstand bumps and scrapes. The Sony a6100, for instance, has a magnesium-alloy body. The Canon EOS 90D has an aluminum-alloy body.
Full weather sealing will keep out corrosive dust and even rain. You can get this in mirrorless cameras such as the Sony a6600 or the Olympus OM-D E-M5 Mark III. DSLRs tend to reserve full weather sealing for their very high-end models, such as the Nikon D780 (about $2,300, body only). But there are some exceptions, like the plastic-body Nikon D7500 (about $900, body only).
Both camera types offer models that are hardened against the elements, although mirrorless cameras tend to offer durability at lower entry prices.
DSLR vs. Mirrorless: Bottom Line
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Mirrorless cameras have the advantage of usually being lighter, more compact, faster and better for video; but that comes at the cost of access to fewer lenses and accessories. For DSLRs, advantages include a wider selection of lenses, generally better optical viewfinders and much better battery life.
For beginners, mirrorless cameras are often a better choice due to their more compact size and simpler controls. Mirrorless cameras are also more likely than a similarly priced DSLR to have a touch screen and thus are more like using a smartphone camera.
While mirrorless cameras come out ahead overall, user experience is a critical factor in picking a camera. DSLRs have a heft and solidity that some photographers find reassuring. And the ability to look straight through the lens could be the decisive factor for certain shooters (especially compared with some entry-level mirrorless cameras that don't have an electronic viewfinder). Before you buy, you should try out each type of camera; the one that feels best is the right choice for you. But whichever kind you purchase, you'll be able to capture great photos.