The iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro promise the biggest changes to Apple's lineup in years, from the sheer number of models and a new design to 5G connectivity and a powerful new A14 Bionic processor. You can also expect a big camera upgrade and possibly 120Hz displays for the Pro models.
• Release date: Fall 2020
• Models: iPhone 12 (5.4 inches), iPhone 12 Max (6.1 inches), iPhone 12 Pro (6.1 inches), iPhone 12 Pro Max (6.7 inches)
• Prices: $649 (iPhone 12), $749 (iPhone 12 Max), $999 (iPhone 12 Pro), $1,099 (iPhone 12 Pro Max)
• Processor: A14 (all models)
• Screens: OLED (all models)
• Other features: 5G compatibility, LiDAR sensor on the iPhone 12 Pro, 120Hz refresh rate on iPhone 12 Pro display
Although the iPhone 12 may have a delayed launch — though there's some argument as to how big of a delay there will be — rumors and leaks have painted a pretty full picture of what to expect from Apple's new phones, including the release date, price and specs.
The iPhone 12 is expected to come in four models: the 5.4-inch iPhone 12; 6.1-inch iPhone 12 Max; 6.1-inch iPhone 12 Pro; and 6.7-inch iPhone 12 Pro Max. All of the new iPhone 12 devices should feature OLED displays and 5G connectivity, but the iPhone 12 Pro series would steep up to a 120Hz refresh’s rate and three rear cameras plus a LiDAR sensor.
We could also see a new design for Apple’s phones, one that hearkens back to the iPhone 5’s flat edges and more squared off look. And there should be a smaller notch, too.
The iPhone 12 isn't expected until the fall — no one's quite sure when — but here’s everything we know so far about Apple's next smartphones.
Latest iPhone 12 news (updated July 13)
- The iPhone 12 battery capacities have leaked, and they're actually smaller than the iPhone 11.
- A new iPhone 12 specs leak says that the iPhone 12 Pro will come with 6GB of RAM (the most ever in an iPhone) while the regular iPhone 12 models will stick with 4GB.
- According to a new analyst note, the iPhone 12 will start at $749, which would be $50 more than the iPhone 11's $699 starting price.
iPhone 12 specs (based on leaks)
|iPhone 12||iPhone 12 Max||iPhone 12 Pro||iPhone 12 Pro Max|
|Price||$649, $749||$749 / $849||$999 / $1,099 / $1,299||$1,099 / $1,199 / $1,399|
|Display||5.4-inch Super Retina OLED (BOE)||6.1-inch Super Retina OLED (BOE)||6.1-inch Super Retina XDR OLED (Samsung)||6.7-inch Super Retina XDR OLED (Samsung)|
|Processor||A14 Bionic||A14 Bionic||A14 Bionic||A14 Bionic|
|Storage||128GB, 256GB||128GB, 256GB||128GB, 256GB, 512GB||128GB, 256GB, 512GB|
|Cameras||Dual rear cameras||Dual rear cameras||Triple rear cameras + LiDAR||Triple rear cameras + LiDAR|
|5G||Sub-6GHz||Sub-6GHz||Sub-6GHz, mmWave||Sub-6GHz, mmWave|
|Battery||2227 mAh||2775 mAh||2775 mAh||3687 mAh|
|Body||Aluminum||Aluminum||Stainless steel||Stainless steel|
iPhone 12 release date
Although new iPhones typically launch in September, multiple reports point to a delay for the iPhone 12.
Most Apple watchers have circled October on their calendar, after The Wall Street Journal reported that mass production has been pushed back by a month. That's sparked talk of the iPhone 12 launch event being pushed back to October, which would be the first time since 2011 that the event wasn’t held in early September. Apple supplier Broadcom has said that one of its customers is facing a "major product delay" — it's widely assumed the company was referring to Apple and the iPhone 12. One report even claims that we may not see the iPhone 12 until November.
The most optimistic report comes from Wedbush, where analyst Daniel Ives says the iPhone 12 will appear in late September, with the phone shipping in early October. That would be only a few weeks behind Apple's normal schedule.
Even if the iPhone 12 does arrive in September, the most premium model could be held back. According to an April 2020 supply chain report, the standard iPhone 12 series will enter mass production in September, while the rumored iPhone 12 Pro Max will follow suit in October.
A delay could prove significant for the iPhone 12. One of the phone's potential rivals — the Galaxy Note 20 — is set to debut at an August 5 Samsung event. The longer the iPhone 12 stays off the market, the more time the Note 20 has to establish itself.
We now know a little bit more about the mobile OS that will power the new iPhone 12 models. Apple has previewed iOS 14 at its annual developer conference, showcasing new features like a redesigned home screen and updates to Maps and Messages among other highlights. Developers have an iOS 14 beta now, with the public beta coming this month. Read our iOS 14 hands-on for a preview on what to expect from the iPhone 12's software.
iPhone 12 price
Analyst Jon Prosser believes that the 5.4-inch iPhone 12 with two rear cameras will start at $649, which would be quite affordable at $50 less than the iPhone 11. The iPhone 12 Max with a 6.1-inch screen would cost $749.
However, a newer report based on an analyst note from Jeff Pu says that the 5.4-inch iPhone 12 will start at $749. This would be $50 more than the iPhone 11 and presumably without a charger or EarPods in the box.
There could be a surprise fifth model of the iPhone 12, according to Wedbush analyst Daniel Ives, which would be even cheaper than the $649 regular iPhone 12. However, this more affordable iPhone 12 would be 4G only. In fact, one leaker on Twitter says that the 4G-only iPhone 12 could be as cheap as $549.
The iPhone 12 Pro, which would have three rear cameras plus a LiDAR sensor, may start at $999. The iPhone 12 Pro could also feature a 120Hz ProMotion display, but that's not a lock quite yet.
Last but not least, the iPhone 12 Pro Max would feature a 6.7-inch display and cost $1,099 to start.
iPhone 12 models
Since a forecast from analyst Ming-Chi Kuo last year, we’ve known that four different iPhone 12 models are on tap for 2020: one at 5.4 inches, two at 6.1 inches and the largest variant measuring 6.7 inches. All four 2020 iPhones will have 5G, Kuo says.
These four phones are also expected to incorporate OLED displays, which would mark a change for Apple. Like the iPhone XR before it, the iPhone 11 features an LCD display instead of an OLED panel.
Here’s a closer look at what to expect from each iPhone 12 model, as detailed by a report from Display Supply Chain CEO Ross Young.
iPhone 12: Look for the entry-level iPhone 12 to feature a 5.4-inch OLED panel with rumored resolution of 2340x1080. Young expects the display to feature Y-OCTA technology, which means that the touch sensor is integrated directly into the display.
In terms of other hardware, the iPhone 12 is expected to feature an A14 processor, 4GB of RAM and a choice between 128GB and 256GB of storage. Like the iPhone 11, this model will rely on dual rear cameras.
iPhone 12 Max: This 6.1-inch iPhone will feature the same hardware as the standard iPhone 12 — A14 processor, 4GB of RAM, 128/256GB of storage and dual rear cameras. Instead, the biggest difference will be the screen. The iPhone 12 Max will have a larger flexible 6.1-inch OLED panel with 2532x1170 resolution. Like the iPhone 12, the Max version will include a touch sensor.
iPhone 12 Pro: The 6.1-inch flexible OLED on this model could be the first phone to feature 10-bit color support, according to Young. It will feature 2532x1170 resolution along with Y-OCTA support. There’s a chance this phone’s screen could support a 120Hz refresh rate.
Expect 6GB of RAM in this A14-powered model with storage options ranging from 128GB to 512GB. The Pro series is rumored to feature four rear lenses, highlighted by a 64MP main sensor and a LiDAR time-of-flight sensor that will work with iPhone AR apps.
iPhone 12 Pro Max: Expect the same RAM, storage and camera features as the iPhone 12 Pro, only with a bigger 6.7-inch OLED panel. Resolution could be 2778x1824, and a 120Hz refresh rate is a possibility here, too.
If you're wondering how all four rumored iPhone 12 models compare, Jon Prosser shared an image on Twitter back in April showing the four models and their key specs. More recently, Japanese blog Macotakara acquired 3D-printed mockups of all four models from "Alibaba sources," providing us with a visual preview of how the range will bear out in terms of size. The mockups are quite low-quality, and the fact they were seemingly pulled off Alibaba makes their legitimacy dubious at best, but at least it's another clue.
A better look at how the different sizes compare comes in a YouTube video by iupdate that shows iPhone 12 dummy units in three different sizes and how they fit in people's hands.
iPhone 12 design
So what will the new iPhones look like? All four iPhone 12 models are expected to bring back the flat metal-edge design of the iPhone 5, according to Bloomberg. This design change will also bring the iPhone lineup closer to the iPad Pro 2020.
The most interesting variant should be the 5.4-inch iPhone 12, which has been leaked via a purchased dummy unit. It's even smaller than the 4.7-inch iPhone 7, despite having a larger display. And it's not significantly larger than the original 4-inch iPhone SE.
Recently, iPhone 12 dummy units have been making their way out to the public. These mockups are often constructed to assist accessory and case makers in developing upcoming products. MacRumors recently got its hands on several of them, and they offer a good sense of how the 5.4-, 6.1- and 6.7-inch models will compare in terms of size.
If you're a bit confused as to why the rear cameras and notches look unchanged from the iPhone 11 range, the simple reason is that these finer design details often aren't accounted for in dummy units, because they're usually not important to the construction of accessories. As it happens, it's been rumored that Apple will downsize the notch by a considerable margin in its upcoming phones; Jon Prosser leaked schematics indicating as much back in April.
Meanwhile, various designers have tried their hand at creating mockups of what the next iPhones will look like, based on rumors and leaked CAD drawings. The folks at Concept Creator built a render of the 5.4-inch iPhone 12, published in a video by LetsGoDigital. You'll note that it has flatter sides and a smaller notch, as well as a SIM tray that has moved beneath the volume buttons.
The above image from designer Jonas Daehnert shows what the iPhone 12 Pro could look like with the flat edges, a smaller notch and a fourth "camera," which would presumably be a LiDAR sensor for more immersive augmented reality applications. That feature was introduced in the iPad Pro that came out in March.
Another iPhone 12 Pro Max video brings the CAD renderings and leaks to life. This video is from YouTuber EverythingApplePro, who cites reliable leaker Max Weinbach as their source, and it shows Apple's 6.7-inch iPhone 12 Pro Max with flatter sides, a built-in LiDAR scanner, flatter edges and a smaller notch — all wrapped up in a slightly taller-but-thinner design than the iPhone 11 Pro Max.
An iPhone 12 Pro video created by Devam Jangra for ConceptsiPhone does a pretty good job taking all the iPhone 12 Pro rumors and turning them into a realistic design. We wouldn't count on those brick and gold colors making the final cut, though.
iPhone 12 colors
We’ve only heard a handful of rumors on the color front, but it’s a safe bet that Apple will likely follow the same pattern of the last couple iPhone launches. That means more colors for the less expensive iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Max, while the iPhone 12 Pro models will adopt darker, more traditional color schemes such as Space Gray and silver.
At least one rumor says that Apple will spice things up by offering a blue color for the iPhone 12. The blue would replace the Midnight Green color offered on the iPhone 11 Pro and may be exclusive to the new Pro models. ConceptsiPhone created a video showing off what a Navy Blue iPhone 12 Pro might look like, and Svetapple has published an even more recent mockup of the iPhone 12 Pro in this new hue.
iPhone 12: Will it have USB-C?
Apple has given its iPhones its proprietary Lighting port since the iPhone 5. However, times are changing. The newest generation of iPad Pro uses USB-C — as does basically every other portable device manufacturer in the world right now — but more important than that is the influence of the European Union.
The EU recently voted to make manufacturers use USB-C in order to increase consumer convenience and decrease waste. Apple has objected to this ruling, but it isn't going to have much of a choice but to react eventually — the question is when. Based on the timing, it's likely Apple won't be in a position to make the switch to USB-C until the iPhone 13 in 2021, and even then, the company could likely find ways to stall a forced change.
Looking ahead, Apple could even ditch ports altogether and skip over USB-C for at least one iPhone 13 model. That rumor also comes from Jon Prosser.
Prosser's claims about the iPhone 12 and iPhone 13's ports have also been repeated by choco_bit, a leaker with apparent inside knowledge.
iPhone 12 and 5G
While Apple analyst Jon Prosser agrees that all four iPhone 12 models will ship with 5G networking support, the 5.4-inch iPhone 12 and 6.1-inch iPhone 12 may not support mmWave technology, which offers the fastest download speeds. Instead, these more affordable devices would support only sub-6GHz 5G.
5G in this lower band offers longer range but slower data rates than mmWave technology, which can reach up to 2Gbps. The iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max will reportedly offer mmWave and sub-6GHz 5G, giving shoppers the best of both worlds. Verizon 5G is focusing, at least initially, on mmWave, which delivers the fastest speeds but typically requires line of sight.
A follow-up report from Digitimes confirms that the iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Max will offer sub-6GHz 5G and that the iPhone 12 Pro models will offer both mmWave and sub-6GHz.
Because Apple bought Intel’s modem business last year, it's expected that Apple will eventually stop getting its 5G modems from Qualcomm and will design its own modems in house, the same way it does for its A-series processors. That won't happen in time for the new iPhone 12, though. The earliest we expect to see an iPhone with an Apple-built modem is 2021, though realistically it's probably more than two years away.
iPhone 12 cameras
A report in Digitimes confirms that the iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Max will have two rear cameras, and the iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max will have three rear cameras plus a new LiDAR sensor.
Given that the iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max featured triple-lens rear cameras for the first time in Apple's hardware, we expect that to continue for the 2020 versions of the Pro iPhones.
According to a separate report, the iPhone 12 will feature a new 7-part lens for the main camera, which would be an upgrade from the 6-part lens on the iPhone 11 series. The extra lens should result in better photo quality and reduce distortion.
It’s also widely expected that the new iPhone 12 will add a new lens — a LiDAR time-of-flight sensor. Analyst Ming-Chi Kuo expects such an addition to at least two iPhone 12 models, most likely the Pro versions. Subsequent reports on iPhone 12 specs have backed that claim, though a series of CAD schematics leaked by YouTuber EverythingApplePro depicts only the Max variant with the LiDAR sensor, so there's a chance it ends up restricted to that model after all.
Fast Company spoke to a source that confirmed the presence of a "world-facing" 3D camera on the back of the iPhone 12, so it looks like this feature is a go, especially after 9to5Mac spotted code in iOS 14 that confirmed the existence of a time-of-flight sensor on the iPhone 12 Pro models. And, of course, the iPad Pro 2020 released earlier this year includes a LiDAR scanner, signaling Apple's plans for the iPhone 12.
Expect the sensor to more accurately judge the distance between your phone and the object you're shooting. That will lead to better portrait shots, while also enabling more accurate object tracking and effects in those AR apps Apple is so keen on. One rumored use would let users point their iPhone 12 at items in Apple Stores and Starbucks and see digital information appear on the phone's display.
Based on a patent filing, Apple is also working on a periscope-like telephoto lens that should provide a longer zoom range than previous iPhones. Apple is apparently trying to fit five-lens and three-lens arrays into a smaller space by using a prism to reflect light.
DigiTimes has published claims that the next iPhone will use "sensor shift", a new kind of image stabilization technology, on its cameras. The technology works by detecting how the phone is moving, and then moving the camera sensors in the opposite direction using small actuators, keeping your picture stable. This is different from the fairly common optical image stabilization (OIS) on other modern smartphone cameras, which moves the lens rather than the sensor, and hopefully for Apple will be more effective at producing quality shots even in shaky hands.
Last November, Sony began teasing its upcoming flagship IMX686 image sensor, which could make it into the iPhone 12. The sensor captures 64 megapixels, though it also has the ability to deliver optimized 16-megapixel shots with improved light sensitivity, thanks to Quad Bayer pixel-binning. The image sensors employed in all three iPhone 11 models are manufactured by Sony and rated at 12 megapixels.
In early June, a 2018 Apple patent came to light that theoretically would allow one iPhone to stitch together disparate selfies from other iPhones, to create a synthetic group selfie of sorts. The patent was unearthed by Patently Apple, and though there's nothing exclusively tying it to the iPhone 12, the state of social distancing indicates that it's a feature Apple may perhaps expedite to release in the iPhone 12.
In terms of video, EverythingApplePro reports that the iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max will be able to record 4K footage at 120 frames per second or 240 fps. That would be an upgrade from today's max of 60 fps.
iPhone 12 performance
It's a foregone conclusion the iPhone 12 line will be powered by Apple's next-generation A-series chip. What we don't know quite yet is how powerful that silicon will be, though a leaked Geekbench 5 score card suggests the upcoming range of iPhones will wipe the floor with competing Android flagships.
Even though Qualcomm's Snapdragon 865 chipset has somewhat closed the gap to Apple's current A13 Bionic CPU, the rumored 5-nanometer A14 Bionic could once again blow Cupertino's lead wide open. According to the leaked screenshot, the iPhone 12 could reach a peak multi-core score of 4,612 points. If true, that would be roughly 1,500 points higher than Samsung's Galaxy S20 Ultra.
The catch, of course, is that leaked benchmarks are quite easy to fake. So while these purported numbers are very exciting, we recommend you wait for further leaks to corroborate these results before buying the hype.
We haven’t heard much about battery life for the iPhone 12, but there is a report claiming Apple, Samsung, Oppo and other manufacturers will very soon start making chargers that use new gallium nitride technology that cuts the size of power adapters while keeping the same wattage. That means that the iPhone 12 could deliver 65 watts of power in a compact charger instead of the huge brick that comes with the 16-inch MacBook Pro.
iPhone 12 display: 120Hz refresh rate
The new iPhone 12 Pro's display could support a welcome improvement over the screens on many current smartphones. Both the iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max are expected to feature 120Hz ProMotion displays. The regular iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Max will likely offer 60Hz displays.
Offering an iPhone Pro with a 120Hz refresh rate should mean smoother scrolling as well as more fluid video playback and smoother gameplay. Ice Universe seemingly confirmed this feature with the following tweet.
In May, one analyst theorized that the 120Hz feature may not make it to the iPhone 12 Pro. Ross Young said only one phone in 2020 is likely to have the LTPO technology needed to balance the faster refresh rate with decent battery life. That device is the Samsung Galaxy Note 20, which is expected to launch in late summer. However, in mid-June, Young included both iPhone 12 Pro models on a list of 2020 handsets expected to pack 120Hz displays, so he's seemingly changed his mind about the iPhones' chances.
The first iOS 14 developer beta also includes an option in the Accessibility menu within the Settings app to limit frame rate. This was shared by leaker Ben Geskin on Twitter, and seemingly confirms that Apple is looking to raise the refresh rate on future iPhone panels. This setting is irrelevant to the current range of iPhones with just 60Hz screens, so the thinking is that it's a giveaway to the iPhone 12 Pro's rumored ProMotion technology. It's worth mentioning that this option also exists on the iPadOS 14 developer beta, for the 120Hz iPad Pro.
iPhone 12 battery life and charging
One detail concerning battery and charging as it relates to the iPhone 12 will surely disappoint most buyers, no matter how you slice it. Multiple rumors — one of which comes courtesy of analyst Ming-Chi Kuo — suggest Apple will forgo including a charging adapter with any iPhone 12 model. Not even a conventional, slow 5-watt charger.
As it turns out, Apple is developing a 20-watt brick to replace the company's existing 18-watt solution, but it won't actually ship with any of their new phones. That means buyers will have to shell out cash for a charger if they don't already have one that is compatible with an iPhone. The current price of an 18-watt first-party Apple charger and Lightning-to-USB-C cable is $48 together.
iPhone 12 battery sizes vs iPhone 11 (leaked)
|iPhone 12 series||iPhone 11 series|
|iPhone 12 (5.4 inch): 2227mAh||iPhone 11 (6.1 inch): 3110 mAh|
|iPhone 12 Max (6.1 inch): 2775mAh||iPhone 11 Pro (5.8 inch): 3046 mAh|
|iPhone 12 Pro (6.1 inch): 2775mAh||iPhone 11 Pro Max (6.5 inch): 3969 mAh|
|iPhone 12 Pro Max (6.7 inch): 3687mAh|
The silver lining to this decision is that at least it should diminish needless waste, as many customers likely already have a charger available to them, and shipping another with every phone is damaging to the environment. However, it's reasonable to expect a charger if you're already spending upwards of four digits on a handset, and so we would have at least hoped Apple would include that 20-watt brick with the Pro models, or give customers the option to add one in for a reduced cost.
As far as iPhone 12 battery capacities, a certification from the 3C points to lower capacities than the iPhone 11. The iPhone 12 (5.4 inches) is said to have a 2227 mAh battery, and the 6.1-inch iPhone 12 Max and iPhone 12 Pro will reportedly feature 2775 mAh batteries. The iPhone 12 Pro Max would have a 3687 mAh battery.
By comparison, the 6.1-inch iPhone 11 has a 3110 mAh battery, the 5.8-inch iPHone 11 Pro sports a 3,046 mAh battery and the iPhone 11 Pro Max houses a 3969 mAh pack.
iPhone 12 Touch ID in display?
At least one model of the iPhone 12 could offer an under-display ultrasonic fingerprint sensor, which would bring Touch ID back in a new way. This is according to a report in Economic Daily News, and Ross Young has subsequently said all iPhone 12 models will feature Y-OCTA integrated touch.
Where would the sensor be? A previous report said that Apple would enable fingerprint recognition anywhere on the display, according to information provided to MacRumors by Barclays analysts.
However, Ming-Chi Kuo said that it's possible the 2021 iPhones could feature both Face ID and Touch ID. That would mean we'd have to wait until next year for an in-display fingerprint sensor. Additionally, an Apple patent that's been recently unearthed by AppleInsider suggests Cupertino is working on its own approach for an in-display authentication system. While the iPhone 12 is much too soon to see something like this come to fruition, theoretically it could surface by the time the iPhone 13 emerges late next year.
iPhone 12 Face ID
Today Face ID is used for unlocking your phone, approving app purchases, entering passwords and confirming Apple Pay payments, but one more use could be on the way. As reported by AppleInsider, Apple has been awarded a patent for Face ID that would introduce a very useful application.
The patent explores using Face ID to determine the position of a user's face relative to the phone. That would mean that even if they're interacting with your handset while it's lying flat on a table, or you're holding the iPhone 12 on its side or up over your head, the device would know exactly which direction the screen should be oriented.
It's possible that this feature could be issued as part of iOS 14 and make its way to all iPhones that support Face ID, as opposed to just being an iPhone 12 exclusive.
iPhone 12 accessories
The iPhone typically ships with a set of earbuds and a charger. (In the case of the iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max, that's a fast 18-watt charger.) But Apple may have different plans for the iPhone 12.
Analyst Ming-Chi Kuo expects Apple to leave EarPods out of the iPhone 12 box. That would seem like a curious omission, but Kuo believes that Apple is going to try to get customers to upgrade to its wireless AirPods by shipping its next iPhones without included earbuds for the first time ever. A report from analyst Dan Ives (via 9to5Mac) weeks following Kuo's initial note corroborates the lack of EarPods claim.
iPhone 12 and iOS 14
Apple's iOS 14 will debut on the iPhone 12 when the software launches this fall, and the rumors point to a lot of new features that should change the way you use the iPhone. iOS 14 will reportedly offer a new multitask switcher, a new list view option for the home screen, at least one new augmented reality app and a way for you try apps from the app store without downloading them. Plus, for the first time, you should be able to choose your own default apps for different activities.
Several iOS 14 concept videos have imagined what the interface for the iPhone 12 might be like. And the one above from Ben Geskin shows what a home screen that offers interactive widgets you can place anywhere you like. We can easily see Apple debuting something like this, but there's not word as to whether this is happening in time for the iOS 14 launch.
iPhone 12 outlook
Based on the rumors surrounding the iPhone 12, Apple's 2020 phone update sounds like an exciting one. Now we just need more clarity on when Apple will be able to release all the new iPhone 12 models.
It sounds like the biggest improvements will come in the areas of 5G connectivity and support for augmented reality apps with the time-of-flight sensor slated for some iPhone 12 models. The importance of 5G hinges heavily on how far along wireless carriers are with building out 5G coverage by the time the iPhone 12 ships. And we would expect more info on AR apps during whatever form the online WWDC takes in June.
Even with daily iPhone 12 leaks, there's still so much we don't know about Apple's first 5G iPhones. So be sure to keep an eye on this hub over the coming months as new information surfaces.